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Photoreactivity of self-assembled monolayers of azobenzene or stilbene derivatives capped on colloidal gold clusters. Chemistry of Materials, 13 7 , —, jul How does the trans-cis photoisomerization of azobenzene take place in organic solvents? ChemPhysChem, 11 5 , —, mar The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 1 , —, jan Chemistry of Materials, 15 1 , 20—28, jan Control of dispersion-coagulation behavior of au nanoparticles capped with azobenzene-derivatized alkanethiol in a mixed chloroform-ethanol solvent. Thin Solid Films, 24 , —, oct Light-responsive reversible solvation and precipitation of gold nanoparticles.

ACS Appl.

Interfaces, 7 21 , —, jun Simulation of bulk phases formed by polyphilic liquid crystal dendrimers. Condensed Matter Physics, 13 3 , , Jaroslav Ilnytskyi. Relation between the grafting density of liquid crystal macromolecule and the symmetry of self-assembled bulk phase: coarse-grained molecular dynamics study. Condensed Matter Physics, 16 4 , , Arsen Slyusarchuk and Jaroslav Ilnytskyi.

Functional Nanoparticles for Bioanalysis, Nanomedicine, And Bioelectronic Devices Volume 2

Novel morphologies for laterally decorated metaparticles: molecular dynamics simulation. Condensed Matter Physics, 17 4 , , dec Jaroslav M. Ilnytskyi and Marina Saphiannikova. Reorientation dynamics of chromophores in photosensitive polymers by means of coarse-grained modeling. ChemPhysChem, —, sep Taro Kihara. Convex molecules in gaseous and crystalline states.

In Advances in Chemical Physics, pages — Wiley-Blackwell, jan Juho S. Lintuvuori and Mark R. A new anisotropic soft-core model for the simulation of liquid crystal mesophases. Here, we present electrochemical genosensors devoted for detection of influenza virus H5N1 gene sequence. We focus our attention on ion-channel mechanism, E-DNA sensors, and genosensors based on redox-active layer. Immunosensors are also adequate analytical devices for detection of pathogens since antibodies are natural receptors responsible for binding of antigens.

Thus, the binding selectivity and efficiency are naturally high. The immunosensors presented could be divided into two main groups: ion-channel mimetic and based on redox-active monolayer. Steps Forwards in Diagnosing and Controlling Influenza.


Infectious viral disease, which is spread among birds, in particular avian influenza AI , could affect other animals, as well as humans [ 1 ]. Controlling the AI in animals is the first step in decreasing risks to humans. Therefore, there is a high need for the development of the analytical methods allowing the fast and reliable AI virus detection. Their main drawbacks are being time-consuming and demanding high-quality laboratories.

The biosensors are very good alternative. They are self-contained integrated analytical instruments which are capable of providing specific quantitative or semiquantitative analytical information applying a biological recognition element, which is indirect spatial contact with a transducer element. Main parameters describing the quality of biosensors are selectivity, sensitivity, reproducibility, and time of response. Electrochemical biosensors belong to a subclass of biosensors, which contain an electrochemical transductor responsible for converting of energetic signal coming from an intermolecular recognition process into electrical on.

The complete electrochemical biosensor should be cheap, small, portable, and capable of being used by semiskilled operators. In order to achieve this final goal, we have been working on several types of geno- and immunosensors. In the ion-channel mimetic immunosensors and genosensors, the presence of redox marker in the sample solution is necessary. The antigen-antibody complex formation as well as hybridization process suppresses the accessibility of redox marker toward the electrode surface. In the genosensors and immunosensors based on redox-active monolayer, the strategy for immobilization of the specific recognition elements involved their interactions with transition metal centers complexed on the electrode surface [ 15 — 19 ].

So, the presence of electroactive markers in the sample solution is not necessary. This is very important for analytical procedure involving naturally occurring molecules in which properties might be influenced by redox markers. In general, electrochemical genosensors monitor the DNA duplex formation at the surface of electrode through changes of current or potential values either using electrochemical labels or label-free system [ 20 — 25 ]. The immobilization of single-stranded DNA ssDNA probe at the surface of electrode plays a crucial role for future genosensor analytical parameters.

Various electrode materials such as gold, glassy carbon, carbon nanotubes, and graphene-modified electrodes have been applied for ssDNA immobilization. The physical adsorption, the simplest immobilization method, relies on the electrostatic interactions between ssDNA and surface of electrode. But such sensing layers are not stable. In addition, ssDNA strands are not well ordered, and because of this, they are not sufficiently accessible for target molecules. The alternative method for immobilization of oligonucleotides on the electrode surface is their entrapping into polymer film deposited on the surface.

The layer prepared according to this procedure is much more stable in comparison to the previous one. The weak point of this approach is the difficulty to control the flexibility of ssDNA probes and, as a consequence, their availability for target DNA. The next method of DNA immobilization exploits the natural affinity of avidin to biotin.

This method allows to create stable sensing layers with controlled density of ssDNA probes. The most popular protocols of electrode modification are based on the formation of covalent bonds between the functional group introduced into ssDNA strand and functional group located at the surface of electrode. Therefore, the regulation of ssDNA probe density, as well as their stable covalent immobilization and proper orientation, is relatively easy to achieve.

Different approaches for detection of the probe-analyte hybridization processes have been applied in various genosensors. One of them is based on changes of electrochemical activity of nucleobases upon the hybridization events. This concept has been proposed by Palecek and coworkers [ 26 ].

Oxidation of adenine A and guanine G can be readily observed using carbon electrodes or hanging mercury drop electrodes HMDEs , which are suitable for investigation of reduction of nucleic acids. Their main drawback is background current at the relatively high potentials required for direct oxidation of DNA. In the case of reduction, the serious limitation is the necessity to use mercury electrode.

Another approach for voltammetric signal generation was presented by Umezawa and coworkers [ 6 ]. In their approach, the mechanism for generation of an analytical signal was connected with the binding event between target compound and recognition element immobilized at the electrode surface. Because of the creation of steric hindrance, as well as changing the surface charge, the accessibility of redox marker present in the sample solution toward the electrode is changed.

Thus, creation of analyte-receptor supramolecular complex affected the electron transfer from marker to surface of electrode. The heterogeneous rate constant of electron transfer from marker to electrode surface became large or smaller; therefore, the redox current increased or decreased. The electrochemical sensors based on this mechanism are called ion-channel mimetic sensors.

These data confirmed that the application of DNA probe with longer spacer part increased the hybridization signal. But at the same time, the lower genosensor selectivity was observed. When SH-NC3 DNA probe with shorter spacer was applied, the sensor was able to distinguish between the PCR products with different positions of complementary parts, whereas the electrode modified with longer spacer molecules was not able to do this [ 11 , 12 ].

Plaxo and coworkers [ 25 ] introduced another type of hybridization detection technique that exploits the difference in physical flexibility between single-stranded oligonucleotides and double-stranded ones. Zhao, and S. Chu, Y. Huang, and Y. Fu, A. Collins, and Y. Zhao, R. Dluhy, and R. Driskell, A. Seto, L. Jones, S.

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Jokela, R. Park, G. Siragusa, L. Jones, R. Zhao, and Y. Driskell, S.

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Shanmukh , Y. Liu, S. Hennigan, L. Jones, Y. Dluhy, D. Krause, and R.

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Driskell, R. Tripp, and R. Driskell, and Yiping Zhao, " Controllable and reversible hot spot formation on Silver nanorod arrays ," Chem. Singh, Thomas E.

Lanier, Hao Zhu, William M. Dennis, Ralph A.